A Critical Analysis About The Satellite System

International club on a tall, it has only four members, heads of research has attracted the attention of many top scientists and engineers, this club is GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), four members are the US GPS, the European Galileo GALILEO, Russia GLONASS GLONASS, China Compass COMPASS.

China Beidou is a new member, but also the development momentum of the most fierce members, Beidou is Editor’s Note? What is the impact on our lives? This is a very interesting topic. On the Big Dipper, there are many articles in academic journals, but too many professional articles of terminology, ordinary people do not read, but will not be interested to read.

Satellite 2.JPG – This is China!

Media and the network also has some introductory articles, most of the achievements of the Government to highlight the propaganda draft, the content is fragmented, not easy to comprehensively understand the reader, and many articles of argument is not accurate, apparently written by non-professionals. Science and technology reports are not written by the scientific and technological people, but the literary journalist caught pen, this phenomenon is the chronic disease reported by domestic science and technology.

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Because of professional reasons, I have been concerned about the Big Dipper, but many years of communication professional basic course teaching practice, I will be complex professional issues described in popular language features. I took advantage of two months of free time, access to a large number of public offering of information, combing out this comprehensive introduction to the Beidou satellite science long text.

1, starting from the GPS

October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world’s first man-made earth satellite, creating a human space century. The United States is paying close attention to it, there is a man named Bill Gay mathematician and a physicist named George Winkenbach, who in Hopkins gold Applied Physics Laboratory found a phenomenon, that is, The frequency of the satellite shift, the study found that the relative motion caused by Doppler frequency shift effect.

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The two scientists conducted an experimental study and found that if the ground set up multiple receivers, according to the different frequency of the received signal to infer the specific location of the satellite, they are pleased to tell the results of this study The laboratory director Frank. McClure said they had achieved a Doppler tracking of Soviet satellites.

Frank was doing a study of the Navy, the study content is how the Pentagon know the location of the warships in the vast sea, the two scientists heard the report after his eyes light up, since you can find the satellite where, if the problem in turn , The satellite will be able to find where you are, naval warship positioning problem has ideas!

GPS system to start according to this idea, the program needs to be addressed in the first question is: the satellite with low, medium and high which orbit? If the use of low orbit, then the launch cost is relatively low, high precision, but if you need to cover the whole world, 200 satellites, so vast project is can not afford.

If the high orbit, in theory, three satellites will be able to cover the world, but in addition to the high orbit satellite launch difficult, the more important is the positioning accuracy will be low, for two reasons: First, the track is too high will lead to measurement Error, and the other is the geostationary orbit and the relative velocity of the ground object is very small, is not conducive to the use of Doppler shift solution method.

The track is more eclectic program, covering the world’s only 24-36 satellites , since the track is in motion, even when the ground object does not move, but the speed is also relatively large satellite, which can take advantage of the Doppler shift method . Ahsan Mobeen

Based on the above into account, the United States chose the 24 satellite constellation in orbit in 1978, launched the first satellite, the whole system put into operation in 1995, the existing 30 satellites , divided into military and civilian both targeting mode in which civil manner Open to the world.

2, the United States is not Huolei Feng?

GPS is a good thing to improve the quality of life is quite large, such as car and mobile phone navigation is very important, people bid farewell to the road map in the paper to find the history. GPS navigation is more important for the adventure, the key moment can help. Such a good thing, the United States has invested heavily, actually free to the world, is the US government is Huolei Feng?

In fact, even if the GPS is not free that it can not receive the money, so why? Because GPS is a one-way communication system, which is similar with the broadcast tower. Radio and TV tower We all know that it just fired the signal, in the end there is a radio to listen to or listen to 10,000 radio, radio and television tower is not known, GPS system as well, 30 satellites just keep the ground to the signal, Specifically, who is receiving and using these signals, it is simply unaware, since the uninformed, it also how to collect money?

Through the sale of high-priced decoder chip to collect money okay? The answer is not, because the GPS is not only used to receive a one-way communication mechanism, which is encrypted transmission is inherent obstacles, even engage in encryption, a few days will be cracked, especially the code also requires Easy to use, the receiving device requires low cost, which is more difficult for encryption.

If the GPS free, it will certainly form a huge market in the world, relying on this system will have a new international industry, and will form a strong national soft power, so that GPS is free in line with the national interests of the United States.

ban, which the United States is not a threat? In fact, GPS is only open code, the accuracy of the military than the US military code difference of ten times, congenital to a large portion of the setback. More importantly, if the fight with the United States, people give you a stop GPS code, you have to rely on GPS, and even lost the compass, which may be blind. If the United States does not give you stop GPS, but a cheat code, aimed at the United States missiles may fly to their positions, this is more terrible.

Therefore, the arms of other countries can not use the US GPS, once the formation of dependence will be like drug addicts can not extricate themselves, we must develop their own positioning navigation system. Of course, the development of the country’s positioning and navigation system is only a small number of powers, as Thailand and Mexico and other small countries do not have to use the heart, because the global positioning and navigation system is too vast, comprehensive national strength weak small countries are not made From, or to continue to use GPS to honestly, which is also peace of mind.

3, the origin of the Big Dipper

China is an ambitious country, in the positioning of navigation satellites on this matter can not plan peace of mind, in fact, from the 70s of last century has begun to suck, and the 75th Five-Year Plan proposed a “new four-star” plan, then put forward Over a single star, binary, Samsung, three to five stars of the regional system solutions, as well as multi-star global system design. Research, demonstration, re-study, and then demonstrated … … never stopped.

In the early 1980s, a dual-satellite positioning scheme was proposed by the expert group headed by Academician Fong Yun-yun, who was a member of the “Two Bomb and One Star” scholarship. This was the best-known plan at that time, but was shelved for ten years due to various economic factors. 1991 is a major turning point, the Gulf War to wake up the Chinese people, the United States GPS in the application of combat is very successful, the decision-making a profound awareness of this thing is not true after the war, was shelved decade of binary positioning program Start immediately.

Why do not like the United States as 30 satellite system? At that time the situation is no experience and no money, just getting started too easy to start playing from time to time, up to play a big easy to mess up the pot. There will be friends asked in the space to coordinate three coordinates, two satellites is not enough ah? This is a good question, double-star positioning program has a high degree of device, users need to self-test elevation, the result as a third coordinate, which is like the center of the Earth is installed in a virtual satellite, which achieved a Samsung positioning. So why not launch three satellites altogether? The reason is very simple, highly instrument is very cheap, this program is more economical.

Only two stars, of course, can not engage in the track as the US GPS, track coverage is low, the two orbit satellites in most of the time outside of China flying outside, that China is also why use it? So can only engage in high-track, but also have to be static, so as to properly stop in the Chinese mainland over.

Still high orbit is the binary positioning must be selected from the technical point of view, this is no doubt correct, but buried the hidden dangers of performance is not strong, which is to talk about the next question, Beidou generation has been criticized.

4, Beidou generation has been criticized

MH370 lost after the emergence of a lot of popular science, the public familiar with the Doppler effect of the term, that Doppler effect on the satellite in the end is a good thing or a bad thing? This depends on what kind of satellite, the Doppler effect on the navigation satellite is a good thing, because the satellite relative to the ground relative to the measured object relative velocity, the more obvious the Doppler effect, positioning will be more accurate, and even Is the positioning of the core principles of navigation satellites.

However, the Doppler effect on the communications satellite is a bad thing, because the frequency offset will lead to communication failure, must be amended. For example, in the Indian Ocean over the Asia-Pacific International Communications Satellite is relatively fixed on the ground, the MH370 in the final stage of the issue of seven exploration signals detected by the satellite frequency offset, it was to be modified out of the data, Think of this has become the only evidence of the aircraft track. Sentence summary is this: communications satellites did live positioning satellite, the Doppler effect could have been a bad thing into a good thing.

Since China’s two satellites are geostationary orbit, naturally can communicate with the international communications satellite to complete the same task, so both positioning and communication is designed to Beidou generation of technical features, and GPS and other positioning and navigation systems are Communication is not supported.

US GPS does not have the Beidou this communication function, it really can not say that people behind the technology, because people’s satellite system is performing their duties, positioning satellite and communication satellite two systems are excellent performance. The Beidou generation is a dual role, it sounds more comprehensive function, in fact, China’s positioning satellites hit the orbit of communications satellites, the natural harvest of the sideline of communications.

After all, positioning is the main industry of the Beidou generation, most of the channel resources must be given to the location of data transmission, so the communication channel resources to very few, it can not complete real-time voice communication, can only complete the SMS function.

As the two stars of the orbit is very high, resulting in the ground measured object and satellite relative velocity is very low, so the Doppler effect is not obvious, the positioning accuracy is far better than GPS. So although the official propaganda Beidou generation communication and positioning is a unique advantage, in fact, the communication function is much worse than the international maritime satellite positioning function much worse than the GPS satellites, communication and positioning although what are capable, but the performance are No.

In all fairness, Beidou generation has reached the design targets, the project is very successful, after all, only two stars Well, Zeneng dozens of pieces of maritime communications satellites and GPS satellites compared to it, like you spent 800 to buy Department of dual card dual standby cottage, call it as good as Apple’s mobile phone is good, this is not fair.

May wish to assume that if there is no international maritime satellite and GPS satellite, then it can locate and communicate the Beidou generation is radiant, but the problem is the Beidou generation come out, the two satellite systems are quite mature, In contrast, the Compass is simply a lump Xiang, and the state has spent a lot of money to create a lump Xiang, of course, is a variety of scolded, R & D staff are dumb and dare not say anything.

5, marriage with the Galileo program

Beidou generation of experience is relatively poor, that the ye go down? At this time, China took a fancy to Europe’s Galileo program, which is a joint European countries engaged in global positioning navigation satellite system program, because this project is too much money, no single country in Europe who can not afford, but can not do, Countries with good relations with the United States, but can not put national security are tied to the US government.

Europe has technology but money, so they took aim at the local tyrants China, China is not because of the generation of the Big Dipper to worry about it, naturally hit it off, it was reported that China joined the Galileo technology, and very generous took two million occupation fee. But China is more and more feel wrong, Europe actually Japan and India also pull into the partnership, and their money but a lot of rights, this is not to China as a bigotong it? More money is not the problem, the key is that these two countries would have to be in the military to guard against, do you want to use in the defense of the same system? China found signs of wrong, determined to come out after the card to exit, quit their own go it alone, began to develop the second generation of the Big Dipper.

Compass II plans to launch 35 satellites by 2020, forming a global positioning and navigation system, more than 5 more than GPS. More than 5 of the static orbit satellites above the equator, the main task is to complete the message, the other 30 with the United States, like 30 GPS, are the orbit of the moving satellite.

Beidou second-generation GPS and the size of the application of the orbit and frequency with the European Galileo more consistent, which inevitably met the satellite orbit and frequency contention. Satellite orbit and space frequency is the common resources of mankind, how to allocate it? The international rules are neither divided by the state nor by the population, but who should be counted first.

The principle of pre-emption is developed in the Western developed countries, they think that this is the same country have the same principle of fairness, on the grounds that: you have the ability to play the satellite ah, I did not stop you, you do not fight yourself Thing, if you never fight, do not say that the track and frequency will always keep you? This sounds reasonable, even more critical is, even if you think unreasonable, you have no ability to prevent the developed countries track or frequency.

The first satellite of the Galileo program in 2005, but not open, but accounted for the track but did not account for the frequency, why did not open it? The reason is no money, need to spend open, Europe is a little tight. China Beidou second generation of the first stars also followed by God, and up on the opening, which put the track and frequency are accounted for on the, why? This is because the Chinese government is not bad money.

Europe Galileo side of the leisurely fiddle, and the Chinese side of the Big Dipper one by one to keep playing satellites, and later also engaged in a double-edged sword, and Galileo and the Beidou second generation of some frequency is coincident, both in international telecommunications The European Union, the United States to put pressure on China, asked China to slow down the pace of the European people, and so on.

Europe and the United States before with the technical and economic advantages to seize the resources of China’s technology and the economy is not to force only eat Yaba Kui, you have never been humility, and now why should I humility? China ignored Europe and the United States protest, according to the established rhythm to continue to play satellites.

6, the Asia-Pacific region network

Although the 35 satellites have not yet hit the whole, but the Asia-Pacific region of the Big Dipper positioning navigation network has been built up, and has been put into use. GPS and Beidou in the orbit of the satellite are 30, they are woven in space on a network, GPS mesh is the most dense in the United States over the second generation of the Big Dipper mesh closest to China over the local To provide services is the top priority, of course, a good understanding of this principle. Canada and Mexico, of course, will choose GPS, and for the Asia-Pacific countries, Compass has an advantage over GPS.

Asia-Pacific countries recognized the advantages of the Beidou, the Chinese government is also actively promote the Beidou II in the Asia-Pacific region, Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos and other countries sent 19 experts, in July 2014 To study the Beidou II, to discuss cooperation matters.

The first stop is the Wuhan Optics Valley Beidou Group, visited China’s largest remote sensing satellite ground receiving station, the second station to go to Yellowstone, visited the construction of the China – ASEAN Beidou Demonstration City, the third station visited the Beidou International Institute of Space Industry, the fourth station is to participate in “2014 Compass International Technology and Application of Training Course”, led by Academician Li Deren in Wuhan University of Surveying and Mapping national point of live laboratories in the continuous learning of half a month.

Itinerary is very particular about the first to bring them to visit, the trip is not intensive you thought slack, a more than a high-end atmosphere on the level of the Beidou Industrial Park, so that their eyes stare more and more in the heart by the After the shock, and then by the internationally renowned scientist Professor Li Delin personally taught to answer your questions the use of the Big Dipper, by the way the harvest of these ASEAN experts knee.

Thai experts said that some of the GPS satellite signal Thailand can not receive, and the Beidou all the satellite signals can receive, of course, to participate in the Big Dipper “Eye” program, and Thailand has now completed the first CORS (continuous operation of satellite positioning services Integrated system). Malaysia followed, will become the Big Dipper “eye” the next settled country.

7, in the application of fisheries

Beidou’s first successful application is May 12, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, do not look at our usual communication is very convenient, telephone, text messaging, Internet and other means, but in fact are highly dependent on fiber and base stations, when these infrastructure To a large area of damage, you will find QQ, WeChat, microblogging, SMS … … all usual very convenient means of communication are all finished, in addition to roar outside simply no way.

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At that time Beidou generation system, although the performance indicators, but compared to GPS and maritime satellites have been criticized out of Xiang, but the Big Dipper in the earthquake but played out of the ground from the advantages of its positioning and text messaging capabilities into full play Role, has become the rescue command troops and front-line rescue personnel the most effective communication assistant, to maximize the “72-hour gold rescue time” effective use of Beidou highlights the technical advantages of serving the people’s livelihood.

Ocean fishery is a dangerous business, when the risk can get timely assistance is very important, and then save the fishermen will be prepared to two different electronic equipment, one GPS is maritime satellite phone, in time to encounter risks in time for help.

The need for help at risk, first of all to use GPS fixed position, and then maritime satellite phone to inform the shore rescue team, telling them my distress GPS coordinates, so that they come to save me. Of course, useful radio, but the reliability of the radio than the maritime satellite phone, life and death can not pass on the catch on the blind. However, raising a maritime satellite phone is very expensive, but in order to save lives and dare not critical moment, many fishermen are very tangled.

Compass II in the Asia-Pacific distribution network, fishermen have a new option, that is mounted Beidou satellite shipboard terminal , two-way text messaging capabilities Compass in respect of fishing vessels wrecker was perfect application, a button for help after the dangerous encounter, terminal Will be automatically attached to the location information with the help of SMS sent to the shore rescue team to achieve the GPS + maritime satellite phone function, and more convenient.

That the terminal expensive? Government to promote, as a safety machinery and equipment, to enjoy agricultural subsidies, the Government took out an additional 1 million, free of charge for the Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang, Hainan 10 000 fishing boats installed Beidou terminal, followed by re-installation of direct Subsidies Jiucheng, fishermen only need a symbolic out of 10% of the money can be installed.

Maritime satellite phone is expensive, that Compass satellite SMS expensive? The answer is a San Mao! This is the cheapest satellite SMS, why so cheap, there are government subsidies chanting, in fact, simply did not consider the cost, the charges are symbolic. Originally, some experts recommend free, but afraid of the fishermen have nothing on the hair pieces, too much waste of satellite channel resources, simply set a San Mao it. Articles Based

Beidou satellite SMS function is very popular, according to statistics in Zhejiang Province in 2011, Zhejiang fishermen use Compass satellite send text messages 13 million, of which 6.04 million boat and boat interoperability, boat and mobile communication 696 million.

Fishery provinces on the shore based on the Big Dipper fishery information service infrastructure, through the satellite to the fishing vessels to send real-time weather, waves, red tide, fish flood news, and even the day fishing market prices to help fishermen decide which fish, Fishermen at sea can catch the information spread to the shore, in advance contact the seller. Guerilla Marketing

8, “two off a crisis” and ground-based augmentation system

“Two-passenger-one-risk” refers to the operation of road-line passenger transport, chartered vehicles, dangerous goods transport vehicles, which must be installed electronic positioning devices, and operational information timely access to the national network of joint control system. In the traffic control department of the monitor on the big screen, the state of the vehicle movement at a glance, speeding into the forbidden line and other illegal driving behavior will automatically alarm, this is a protection of people’s lives and safety regulations.

The scope of “two passengers and one danger” is still expanding. Police cars, official vehicles and school buses are also being incorporated into the satellite positioning and monitoring system, not only for the safety of vehicles, but also to monitor the private use of buses. The route of vehicles is clear and clear. , The data properly stored in the database, not by the driver to cover sophistry.

This special vehicle for satellite monitoring, previously required the use of GPS, is now explicitly required by the government must use the Big Dipper. Some people have questioned the government, the previous GPS-based system would have been able to complete the task, now in order to promote the domestic Beidou to hard, this is not a waste of money it? Proxy Site Proxy Sites Free Web Proxy Free Proxy

This is really not a waste of money, but has a long-term planning the necessary measures. China is planning to engage in the second generation of the Beidou foundation to strengthen the system, in the road light pole, signal tower and other places to set up the Big Dipper equipment, the formation of the Big Dipper ground reinforcement system, and satellite-based space with each other, can achieve real-time positioning accuracy.

Beidou second-generation space-based system and the foundation system once the successful combination of large trucks that no longer dare not long-term use of overtaking, and the previous GPS positioning accuracy is 10 meters, is unable to distinguish between lanes. Location watches worn by children are more precise and sensitive, and the positioning information is no longer “somewhere near” but to exactly which floor tile the child is standing on. Proxy Site Proxy Sites Free Web proxy Free Proxy

Ground-based system is to strengthen close cooperation with the space-based system, if the country’s Guo Zihao system built in the United States on the basis of GPS, that if people charge it? Or shielding the bottom of the data, and that we will be the card of the neck. We have completely independent property rights of the Big Dipper second generation, of course, their own ground-based system to enhance their own Beidou second generation pairing. Usa Proxy Site

9, deformation monitoring and automatic driving test

Compass II uses very, very much, according to statistics there are more than 200, for example, there is a deformation monitoring is devoted to dams, bridges, highways and other huge construction material distortion settlement and make measurements. Netizens will doubt, Beidou and GPS accuracy is 10 meters, ye can engage in such a detailed manual work? This is due to differential algorithmic techniques.

Any measurement will be error, and the results of multiple measurements after the statistical average, it will effectively reduce the error. Satellite positioning of the differential algorithm is the truth, a positioning accuracy is 10 meters, but thousands of times the positioning of the data processing, it is possible to get more accurate results, even accurate to the following millimeters.

Obviously, the more the number of measurements and the longer the accuracy is higher, while the building settlement and deformation is slow, just can use these features to carry out high-precision measurements. The Beidou equipment fixed in the building above, so that it automatically receive positioning information, save enough for a month after the massive positioning data for differential calculation, the accuracy of the following millimeter positioning data even come out, which is easier and accurate than the manual measurement many.

Many remote monitoring point is no cell phone signal, GPS-based deformation monitoring must be manually collected, and the use of Compass deformation monitoring there is a benefit that the data can be passed directly through the Beidou SMS back to the base, to it a solar panel on the Qi Live, positioning, differential solution, the data back to all automation.

In coordination with ground facilities, real-time positioning accuracy of Compass has been much higher than the GPS, has now reached 80 km / h in the case of 2 cm accuracy, which gives another business provides a technology that is based on two Beidou On the System of Non – examiners.

Now reversing storage and other driving test items have electronic monitoring, and pressure lines will alarm, but the road test also had an examiner. After all of the driving course examination may be comprehensive replacement of the Compass system, in the test car to install the Beidou receiver, whether it is inverted library or road test, the system will accurately record real-time vehicle trajectory, and automatic score, more stringent than the examiner and just.

10, Beidou second generation of government promotion

Compass II is the Guo Zihao project, of course, the Government will promote, but the promotion of the road with the previous very different. About seventy-eight years ago, the phone has a Wi-Fi function, and the Chinese government that this technical standard is not good, so out of the national independent intellectual property WAPI standard, trying to replace Wi-Fi. In fact, not only China so dry, South Korea has also launched its own technical standards and resist Wi-Fi.

Wi-Fi technology is simple and easy to promote, which is its sweeping the world’s important reasons, but it also has a weak point, that is one-way security mechanism is not reliable. A while back 3.15 evening goggles network security personnel live performances of the hijacking of the audience phone information, the media often published mobile phone users access to free Wi-Fi lead to loss of coverage, this is the Wi-Fi congenital defects due to technology.

China’s WAPI standard is two-way security authentication, and indeed more secure than Wi-Fi, the government in order to promote it and licensed mobile phone Wi-Fi function of castration, and if you want to Wi-Fi function can only buy parallel phone. This led to a lot of people’s dissatisfaction, but ultimately did not block the Wi-Fi popular, and later on a low-key open, mainstream mobile phone also has a Wi-Fi, and WAPI did not promote open, and now only in the military and so on Confidentiality requirements of the place to use. South Korean government to resist Wi-Fi’s action also failed.

The Chinese government in promoting the second generation of the Big Dipper is clearly a new way of thinking, no longer use the administrative power to limit its competitive technology, but the use of free or subsidized way to induce, proved to be more effective. Such as fishing boats to install Beidou equipment, the Government does not prohibit fishermen continue to use GPS and maritime satellite phone, while in the Beidou equipment to provide substantial subsidies, satellite SMS is only a nominal fee, obviously Compass program is more cost-effective, of course, GPS and maritime satellite phones.

Compass II has more than 200 applications, the needs of the whole society of high-tech enterprises to research and development, continue to provide better Beidou products, so as to make the Big Dipper industry bigger and stronger. China has a lot of engage in positioning and navigation of high-tech enterprises, most of them engage in GPS started, the government’s technology department to invite these CEOs to meet, the leadership speech concise: welcome you continue to engage in GPS research and development, the Government will not limit And interference, but if engage in the second generation of the Big Dipper project, will enjoy high-tech enterprise tax policy, but also from somewhere to get support funds.

Beidou second-generation technology system and GPS almost from the GPS to the Big Dipper is not difficult, the Government designated the Road, corporate CEOs are human fine, have to change the road to engage in the Big Dipper project, the government does not take the money does not take white. Was invited to a meeting of university professors, the leaders said, the Government has a funding for scientific research Beidou welcome professors to project, professors have also said to apply for Beidou research projects, who Intuit also silly to continue to study GPS ah , The United States Government does not give money.

Leadership has said, companies have the advantage of capital equipment, colleges and universities have the advantage of human technology, as strong combination, the professor with a graduate student on the enterprise to do Beidou research by the enterprise out of the equipment out of funds, graduate students come up with In addition to the results for their graduation degree, but also as the enterprise’s technological innovation. Business executives and university professors feel that this idea is good, so the government has pulled together under the pull-pair, the leadership of this is called the Big Dipper Industry Promotion Union.

Government to promote the new industry has changed the way, no longer as WAPI forced to castration as Wi-Fi, but the use of the interests of leverage, corporate executives and professors have got profits, the government came forward to form the industry alliance is performance, happy.

  1. International Telecommunication Union

Standards and norms is the top priority of the telecommunications industry, the International Telecommunication Union is responsible for the development of international telecommunications rules and standards of international organizations in the information age, its status is increasingly important. The International Telecommunication Union is developing 5G key technologies, frequency range and technical standards, which is a major impact on the development of the global telecommunications industry. In addition, it also receives national satellite orbit and frequency of applications, and for the record and approval, the international organization has a very significant influence.

More than 20 years ago, the Chinese government selected an excellent communications professional to work for the International Telecommunication Union. He worked diligently for decades and worked in a respectable manner and had been working for the position of Deputy Secretary-General. The successful election of the Secretary-General was elected, he is the middle of the following Zhao Houlin.

Zhao Houlin January 1, 2015 formally took office of the International Telecommunication Union Secretary-General, January 26 was Li Keqiang met, public reports are official style, what the International Telecommunication Union will support China’s information technology development, but Premier Lee met with him certainly not to say a few polite words, must have something to explain, according to my guess is most likely to ask Zhao Houlin in two things strongly support China, one 5G is the Big Dipper.

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Zhao Houlin, although Chinese, but his organization is serving the world, the official website of the International Telecommunication Union in the leadership of the introduction, their resume is not a nationality that one, only the birthplace of Zhao is the birthplace of Jiangsu Province.

There is a Jiangsu person in charge of satellite orbit and frequency of international organizations as a leader, even if we do not take the back door not privilege, at least not as before, eating yabakui, and this is a good thing. The Chinese government on the Big Dipper’s second great determination to engage in this Guo Zihao project is sufficient financial resources, internal promotion policy is very effective, and actively talk about cooperation has been the outcome of foreign, as well as the International Telecommunication Union support, Time and place, and is expected to 500 billion of new industries are surfaced, Beidou second-generation prospects are very optimistic.

What is Football Heads?

Air hockey and soccer goal with this strange, football-ized mash-ups, preparations for President.

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tank trouble 2

gaffes feast andfacebook super fast football action! Football Heads’ children and young people a skill-based hectic for two minutes to outscore your opponent must play fast and furious. Very miniature football bobble head control and (in any way possible) is a clear goal, such as a fun activity that is required to force the ball pinball eccentric version of the opponents. Your title, deflecting thrust kick and the ball rebound score from all angles!

What is Game?

The term “game engine” as the insanely popular Doom by id Software’s first-person shooter ptc bux maker (FPS) game references appeared in the mid-1990s. Doom core software components from fairly well-defined separation was designed with art and assets, the game world and with the game rules (for example, three-dimensional graphics rendering system, such as collision detection system or audio system), the player’s gaming experience.

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and licensing “engine” software art new world order with only minor changes, weapons, characters, vehicles and began retooling into new products by creating rules of the game were evident this separation value. This not only be thrown by the original developers, individual players and small independent studios built new games using free tools for modifying existing team games “mod community” marked the birth of-band. In the late 1990s, Quake III Arena and re-use in mind and some games like Unreal “modding” was designed. Through the Quake engine it was made highly customizable scripting languages such as C and motor license applied for developers who created them becoming a secondary revenue stream. Today, the game developers to create a game engine and game license of its key software components can reuse significant portions. While this application still requires significant investment in custom software engineering, with all the in-house developed core engine parts can be much more economical. It is often blurred line between a  Coolmath4kids and engine. and More Coolmath games

Others make almost no attempt to separate the two from each other, some engines are reasonably clear to make a distinction. In a game, a rendering code, how to draw orcs specifi-cally to “know” can be. In another game, the rendering engine data can be completely defined general purpose material and shading facilities and “Orc-like” can provide. These two components of any studio definitions are often thinking shifts as it solidifies the design of the game is to make a clear distinction between excellent and understandable game engine.

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A controversial data-driven architecture is not a game, is what distinguishes a game engine, an engine piece of software. A game-coded logic or exception code to handle certain types of employment when the object containing the rules of the game or games, this software to make a different game again becomes difficult or impossible. We will probably be extended and the period for software that can be used as the basis for many different games without major changes “game engine” to separate.

Obviously this is not a black-and-white distinction. Consider a range re-use falls on every engine. I think that could be something similar to a software Microsoft Windows Media Player can play a part-a general-purpose game engine, Apple QuickTime or imagine any game content. However, this ideal has not been achieved yet (and may never). Most game engines carefully prepared and fine adjustment is made to run on a particular game on a particular hardware platform. And even the most general-purpose multi-engine, such as first-person shooters or racing games like a certain style of play, the building is only really suitable. This is a game engine middleware components or more general purpose, it is safe to say that less than optimal on a specific platform to run a specific game.

software design requires no active part and do not change the balance of this trade-off software and / or how to use is based on assumptions about the target hardware will work consists in this case. For example, a rendering engine is designed to handle intimate indoor environments likely to create great outdoor environment will be very good. Off the engine to make sure that no geometry is drawn blocked by walls or objects close to the camera a binary space partitioning (BSP) tree or portal system can use. open engine to ensure that distant objects are rendered with a minimum number, on the other hand, no less-occlusion mechanism, you can use either none, but probably level-of-detail (LOD) uses aggressive techniques the cage using the high-resolution triangle triangle, then the camera try to close geo.

rendering algorithms and data structures are becoming increasingly more efficient with faster hardware and graphics cards arrival of experts are beginning to soften differences between different types of graphics . For example, using a real-time strategy, first-person shooter game is now possible to install engine. However, there are still trade-off between generality and optimality. A game is always a certain game and / or special needs and constraints of the hardware platform, the engine can be fine-tuned even more impressive. what ever you play games?

Earn to Die 3

Earntodie 3: 2012 Part 2 – 3 series win win win is to die for die last installment.Earntodie3 Game winner takes out die: 2012 and passed the desert where the main character survived and now he goes round safety through the city to reach a military base reveals: 2012. The scenes show the previous stage to win Die. I had to go there with 3 levels using one tool to finish each level. This means fire truck, red truck and military transport.
If you can see what tools like reading, you win the game Die for the most powerful tools and you will see that the most powerful. Before starting the game by car, where the previous game easily just last vehicle, a fire truck will be as strong as the school bus is obtained. And a win is always the most powerful tools for the last Die game. For this game, how powerful this tool kit. 3. An update everything in this game Zombies sometimes almost gigantic, it seems that much more do win big to die because he needs all the raw power levels to pass. Boxes and obstacles are many, and even on rocky ground is usually faster than the previous games, and much more pronounced. In fact, improvements in car prices have increased. But the price of energy. 3 Use the power of the tool to your advantage to finish to win levels to die.

2017 Honda CR-Z Specs, Price, Release Date

A few months after being European audience Geneva Auto Show in January of year 2010 2017 Honda CR-Z hybrid is celebrating its world premiere at the Detroit.Read More – proxy site

Auto Show sporty three-door hatchback, hatchback flaunted on the podium.

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a set of decorative cosmetic improvements to the new 2017 Honda CR-Z is performed.
2017 Honda CR-Z: External2017-Honda-CR-Z-front
New 2017 Honda CR-Z sporty 3-door has a striking front view of an aggressive, dynamic look and is a sedan turning point with fancy LED decorative lighting outside.
2017 Honda CR-Z 225L luggage room and tuck position in the spare tire, the rear seating is increased to 401 liters in volume has an underground space when folded.
2017 Honda CR-Z, with front-wheel independent suspension system has a transmission system. This is a rear torsion beam rear and semi-independent architecture, as well as an electric control with the EPS has different functions steering mechanism. Its ABS and EBD has disc brakes.
2017 Honda CR-Z: Interior
New 2017 Honda CR-Z is equipped with numerous functions, such as in the aircraft cockpit, the driver tends to facilitate the correct style has around the control panel. a seven-inch multimedia screen mounted in the center of the dashboard and console also has a futuristic design
Honda hybrid power and a very unique atmosphere and a sporty style with the same time in the driver’s seat height adjustment feature has 3 doors and front seats, the legroom in the rear seats are not large and can accommodate only children.
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2017 Honda CR-Z Under the hood, there is a hybrid power engine. This 6100 rpm and 4800 rpm and 145 Nm of torque, 114 hp generates thrust and a 1.5-liter multi-fuel injection volume electric motor, producing power 20 horsepower they develop 130 hp at 6000 rpm,but when combined with the “ceiling” at 2000 rpm, 1000 -3000 rpm 172 Nm, 190 Nm and 1000 6-speed depends on the type of transmission with CVT and manual transmission.

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